Special Online Collection: Influenza

Influenza imagePreparing for the next influenza pandemic constitutes one of society's great scientific and policy challenges. The 21 April 2006 edition of Science looks at the current flu picture -- including News reports on antivirals and vaccines, Review and Perspective articles on flu transmission, prevention, biology, and several new research papers on influenza science. There's also a podcast providing interviews with a number of the authors.

For our registered users and subscribers, we've assembled this special portal to the special issue contents and to previous Science articles that provide additional perspective on the current crisis -- as well as to three articles from our Science Classic archive dating from 1918 and 1919 that provide contemporary thoughts on the great 1918 pandemic. Access to all these items is free to registered users and subscribers through this portal.

Science Influenza Special Issue: 21 April 2006


Early Diagnosis of Avian Influenza >
Peter S. Lu


Influenza: The State of Our Ignorance >
C. Ash and L. Roberts


A One-Size-Fits-All Flu Vaccine? >
J. Kaiser
Oseltamivir Becomes Plentiful -- But Still Not Cheap >
M. Enserink


Emergence of Drug-Resistant Influenza Virus: Population Dynamical Considerations >
R. R. Regoes and S. Bonhoeffer
Predictability and Preparedness in Influenza Control >
D. J. Smith
Host Species Barriers to Influenza Virus Infections >
T. Kuiken, E. C. Holmes, J. McCauley, G. F. Rimmelzwaan, C. S. Williams, and B. T. Grenfell


Global Patterns of Influenza A Virus in Wild Birds >
B. Olsen, V. J. Munster, A. Wallensten, J. Waldenström, A. D. M. E. Osterhaus, and R. A. M. Fouchier


H5N1 Virus Attachment to Lower Respiratory Tract >
D. van Riel et al.
Avian influenza H5N1 attaches most efficiently to cell types located deep in the lungs of some mammals, influencing pathology and transmissibility.
Structure and Receptor Specificity of the Hemagglutinin from an H5N1 Influenza Virus >
J. Stevens et al.
A surface protein on the "bird flu" virus binds avian cells and with a few mutations could allow more avid attachment to human cells, facilitating infection.
Synchrony, Waves, and Spatial Hierarchies in the Spread of Influenza >
C. Viboud et al.
Thirty years of data indicate that in the United States, seasonal flu epidemics often spread by adult-to-adult transfer during commuting on public transportation.

On the Science Podcast

This week's entire show is devoted to influenza -- including interviews with Science news contributors Martin Enserink and Jocelyn Kaiser on Tamiflu and universal flu vaccines, and with scientists Ron Fouchier on wild birds as carriers of influenza, Angus Nicoll on outbreak responses, and Jeffrey Taubenberger on what we can learn from studying the 1918 pandemic flu virus.

In Previous Issues of Science

For individual subscribers and registered users, we've put together this special collection of previous Science reviews, commentary, research, and news on influenza. It's all free through this portal.


Combating the Bird Flu Menace, Down on the Farm >
Richard Stone
Science 311, 944 (17 February 2006)
Pandemic Skeptics Warn Against Crying Wolf >
Dennis Normile
Science 310, 1112 (18 November 2005)
Are Wild Birds to Blame? >
Dennis Normile
Science 310, 426 (21 October 2005)
Drugs, Quarantine Might Stop a Pandemic Before It Starts >
Martin Enserink
Science 309, 870 (5 August 2005)
Who Controls the Samples? >
Dennis Normile
Science 309, 372 (15 July 2005)
True Numbers Remain Elusive in Bird Flu Outbreak >
Martin Enserink and Dennis Normile
Science 307, 1865 (25 March 2005)
Looking the Pandemic in the Eye >
Martin Enserink
Science 306, 392 (15 October 2004)
Facing Down Pandemic Flu, the World's Defenses Are Weak >
Jocelyn Kaiser
Science 306, 394 (15 October 2004)
Asia Struggles to Keep Humans and Chickens Apart >
Dennis Normile
Science 306, 399 (15 October 2004)
Tiptoeing Around Pandora's Box >
Martin Enserink
Science 305, 594 (30 July 2004)


Community Studies for Vaccinating Schoolchildren Against Influenza >
M. Elizabeth Halloran and Ira M. Longini Jr.
Science 311, 615 (3 February 2006)
Will Vaccines Be Available for the Next Influenza Pandemic? >
Klaus Stöhr and Marja Esveld
Science 306, 2195 (24 December 2004)
Public Health Risk from the Avian H5N1 Influenza Epidemic >
Neil M. Ferguson, Christophe Fraser, Christl A. Donnelly, Azra C. Ghani, and Roy M. Anderson
Science 304, 968 (14 May 2004)


Are We Ready for Pandemic Influenza? >
Richard J. Webby and Robert G. Webster
Science 302, 1519 (28 November 2003)


Clues to the Virulence of H5N1 Viruses in Humans >
Robert M. Krug
Science311, 1562 (17 March 2006)
1918 and All That >
Edward C. Holmes
Science 303, 1787 (19 March 2004)
The Origin and Control of Pandemic Influenza >
Graeme Laver and Elspeth Garman
Science293, 1776 (7 September 2001)
A Molecular Whodunit >
Robert G. Webster
Science293, 1773 (7 September 2001)


Large-Scale Sequence Analysis of Avian Influenza Isolates >
John C. Obenauer et al.
Science 311, 1576 (17 March 2006)
Characterization of the Reconstructed 1918 Spanish Influenza Pandemic Virus >
Terrence M. Tumpey et al.
Science 310, 77 (7 October 2005)
Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza Virus Infection in Migratory Birds >
J. Liu et al.
Science309, 1206 (19 August 2005)
Containing Pandemic Influenza at the Source >
Ira M. Longini, Jr., et al.
Science 309, 1083 (3 August 2005)
Avian H5N1 Influenza in Cats >
Thijs Kuiken et al.
Science306, 241 (8 October 2004)
Mapping the Antigenic and Genetic Evolution of Influenza Virus >
Derek J. Smith et al.
Science 305, 371 (24 June 2004)
The Structure and Receptor Binding Properties of the 1918 Influenza Hemagglutinin >
S. J. Gamblin et al.
Science 303, 1838 (19 March 2004)
Structure of the Uncleaved Human H1 Hemagglutinin from the Extinct 1918 Influenza Virus >
James Stevens et al.
Science 303, 1866 (19 March 2004)
Recombination in the Hemagglutinin Gene of the 1918 "Spanish Flu" >
Mark J. Gibbs, John S. Armstrong, Adrian J. Gibbs
Science 293, 1842 (7 September 2001)
Molecular Basis for High Virulence of Hong Kong H5N1 Influenza A Viruses >
Masato Hatta, Peng Gao, Peter Halfmann, and Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Science 293, 1840 (7 September 2001)

In Science Classic: The 1918 Pandemic

Science Classic

Science Classic provides access to the complete archive of Science back content, in PDF form, from 1880 to 1996 (when Science began putting its full text online). For registered users and individual subscribers, we've selected several articles from the archive dating from during or immediately after the 1918 influenza pandemic, for a taste of what Science Classic has to offer; access to the articles is free from this portal.

For access to the complete Science Classic archive, become a member of AAAS -- or, if you're a registered user at an institution with a current subscription to Science Online, ask your librarian to add Science Classic to your institution's subscription.

The Influenza Pneumonia Pandemic in the American Army Camps during September and October, 1918 [PDF] >
George A. Soper
Science 48, 451 (8 November 1918)
Statistical Study of the Influenza Epidemic [PDF] >
Edwin W. Kopf
Science 49, 228 (7 March 1919)
The Lessons of the Pandemic [PDF] >
George A. Soper
Science 49, 501 (30 May 1919)