Breakthrough of the Year 2009:
References and Web Links for the Runners-Up

Online Extras on the Gamma Ray Sky

Papers and Articles

A. A. Abdo et al., "Detection of 16 Gamma-Ray Pulsars Through Blind Frequency Searches Using the Fermi LAT," Science 325, 840-844 (2009)

A. A. Abdo et al., "Detection of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae with Fermi," Science 325, 845-848 (2009)

A. A. Abdo et al., "A Population of Gamma-Ray Millisecond Pulsars Seen with the Fermi Large Area Telescope," Science 325, 848-852 (2009)

Y. Bhattacharjee, "Galactic Glare Reveals Birthplace of Cosmic Rays," Science 326, 1047 (2009)

F. Acero et al., "Detection of Gamma Rays from a Starburst Galaxy," Science 326, 1080-1082 (2009)

The VERITAS Collaboration, "A Connection Between Star Formation Activity and Cosmic Rays in the Starburst Galaxy M82," Nature 462, 770-772 (2009)

Interesting Web Sites

Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

Online Extras on Plant ABA Receptors

Papers and Articles

S.-Y. Park et al., "Abscisic Acid Inhibits Type 2C Protein Phosphatases via the PYR/PYL Family of START Proteins," Science 324 1068-1071 (2009)

Y. Ma, et al., "Regulators of PP2C Phosphatase Activity Function as Abscisic Acid Sensors" Science 324, 1064-1068 (2009)

J. Santiago et al., "The Abscisic Acid Receptor PYR1 in Complex with Abscisic Acid," Nature 462, 665 (2009)

Ping Yin et al., "Structural Insights into the Mechanism of Abscisic Acid Signaling by PYL Proteins," Nature Structural & Molecular Biology 16, 1230-1236 (2009)

K. Melcher et al., "A Gate-Latch-Lock Mechanism for Hormone Signalling by Abscisic Acid Receptors," Nature 462, 602-608 (2009)

K. Miyazono et al., "Structural Basis of Abscisic Acid Signalling," Nature 462, 609-614 (2009)

N. Nishimura et al."Structural Mechanism of Abscisic Acid Binding and Signaling by Dimeric PYR1," Science 326, 1373-1379 (2009)

T. Umezawa et al., "Type 2C Protein Phosphatases Directly Regulate Abscisic Acid-Activated Protein Kinases in Arabidopsis," PNAS 106, 17588-17593 (2009)

Online Extras on Mock Monopoles

Papers and Articles

D. J. P. Morris et al., "Dirac Strings and Magnetic Monopoles in the Spin Ice Dy2Ti2O7," Science 326, 411-414 (2009)

T. Fennell et al., "Magnetic Coulomb Phase in the Spin Ice Ho2Ti2O7," Science 326, 415-417 (2009)

M. J. P. Gingras, "Observing Monopoles in a Magnetic Analog of Ice," Science 326, 375-376 (2009)

A. Cho, "Physicists Create Magnetic Monopoles--Sort Of," ScienceNOW, 4 Sep. 2009

S. T. Bramwell et al., "Measurement of the Charge and Current of Magnetic Monopoles in Spin Ice," Nature 461, 956-959 (2009)

S. Sondhi, "Condensed-Matter Physics: Wien Route to Monopoles," Nature 461, 888-889 (2009)

Online Extras on Rapamycin, Caloric Restriction, and Aging

Papers and Articles

R. J. Colman et al., "Caloric Restriction Delays Disease Onset and Mortality in Rhesus Monkeys," Science 325, 201 (2009)

L. S. Cox and J. A. Mattison, "Increasing Longevity through Caloric Restriction or Rapamycin Feeding in Mammals: Common Mechanisms for Common Outcomes?," Aging Cell 8, 607 (2009)

D. E. Harrison et al., "Rapamycin Fed Late in Life Extends Lifespan in Genetically Heterogeneous Mice," Nature 460, 392 (2009)

M. Kaeberlein and B. K. Kennedy, "Ageing: A Midlife Longevity Drug?," Nature 460, 331 (2009)

B. K. Kennedy and M. Kaeberlein, "Hot Topics In Aging Research: Protein Translation, 2009," Aging Cell 8, 617 (2009)

M. D. W. Piper and A. Bartke, "Diet and Aging," Cell Metabolism 8, 299 (2008)

Interesting Web Sites

National Institute on Aging site on possible life-extenders

Ouroboros, a blog about aging research

Online Extras on Lunar Ice

Interesting Web Sites

NASA's LCROSS Web site

NASA Ames Research Center Web site

Online Extras on Gene Therapy

Papers and Articles

A. Maguire et al., "Age-Dependent Effects of RPE65 Gene Therapy for Leber's Congenital Amaurosis: A Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Trial," Lancet 374, 1597-1605 (2009)

K. Mancuso et al., "Gene Therapy for Red-Green Colour Blindness in Adult Primates," Nature 461, 784-787 (2009)

N. Cartier et al., "Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Therapy with a Lentiviral Vector in X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy," Science 326, 818-823 (2009)

A. Aiuti et al., "Gene Therapy for Immunodeficiency Due to Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency," NEJM 360, 447-458 (2009)

Online Extras on Graphene

Papers and Articles

Xuesong Li et al., "Large-Area Synthesis of High-Quality and Uniform Graphene Films on Copper Foils," Science 324, 1312-1314 (2009)

R. F. Service, "Carbon Sheets an Atom Thick Give Rise to Graphene Dreams," Science 324, 875-877 (2009)

A. K. Geim, "Graphene: Status and Prospects, " Science 324, 1530-1534 (2009)

X. Du et al., "Fractional Quantum Hall Effect and Insulating Phase of Dirac Electrons in Graphene," Nature 462, 192-195 (2009)

K. I. Bolotin et al., "Observation of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect in Graphene," Nature 462, 196-199 (2009)

Y.-M. Lin et al., "Operation of Graphene Transistors at Gigahertz Frequencies," Nano Letters 9, 422-426 (2009)

Online Extras on Hubble Repair Mission

Papers and Articles

Y. Bhattacharjee, "Shuttle Crew Set to Prepare Hubble For a Star-Studded Grand Finale," Science 324, 718 (2009)

A. Lawler, "A Reprieve -- and Risk," Science 324, 719 (2009)

Y. Bhattacharjee, "Space Telescope's Chief Scientist Recalls How Hubble Was Saved," Science 325, 669 (2009)

Interesting Web Sites

HubbleSite (NASA online gateway for the Hubble Space Telescope)

STS-125 Mission Information (NASA's page for the shuttle flight that carried out the servicing mission)

Online Extras on LCLS

Papers and Articles

A. Cho, "For a Famous Physics Laboratory, a Quick and Painful Rebirth," Science 326, 221 (2009)

Interesting Web Sites

LCLS Home Page at SLAC

SLAC study from 2000, outlining the science potential of the LCLS [PDF]