Breakthrough of the Year 2007:
References and Web Links for Areas to Watch and Scorecard

Online Extras on Areas to Watch

Large Hadron Collider

The Large Hadron Collider

European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)


S. Vasudevan et al., "Switching from Repression to Activation: MicroRNAs Can Up-Regulate Translation," Science 318, 1931 (2007)

Y. Han and R. F. Siciliano, "Keeping Quiet: MicroRNAs in HIV-1 Latency," Nature Medicine 13, 1138 (2007)

I. M. Pedersen et al., "Interferon Modulation of Cellular MicroRNAs as an Antiviral Mechanism," Nature 449, 919 (2007).

J. S. Karres et al., "The Conserved MicroRNA miR-8 Tunes Atrophin Levels to Prevent Neurodegeneration in Drosophila," Cell 131, 136 (2007)

L. Ma et al., "Tumour Invasion and Metastasis Initiated by MicroRNA-10b in Breast Cancer," Nature 449, 682 (2007)

J. S. O'Neill and M. H. Hastings, "Circadian Clocks: Timely Interference by MicroRNAs," Current Biology 17, r760 (2007)

M. J. Axtell et al., "Common Functions for Diverse Small RNAs of Land Plants," Plant Cell 19, 1750 (2007)

A. Rodriguez et al., "Requirement of bic/microRNA-155 for Normal Immune Function," Science 316, 608 (2007)

B. Zhou et al., "miR-150, a MicroRNA Expressed in Mature B and T Cells, Blocks Early B Cell Development When Expressed Prematurely," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104, 7080 (2007)

Y. Zhao et al., "Dysregulation of Cardiogenesis, Cardiac Conduction, and Cell Cycle in Mice Lacking miRNA-1-2," Cell 129, 303 (2007)

E. van Rooij et al., "Control of Stress-Dependent Cardiac Growth and Gene Expression by a MicroRNA," Science 316, 575 (2007)

J.K. Park et al., "The miRNA Pathway Intrinsically Controls Self-Renewal of Drosophila Germline Stem Cells," Current Biology 17, 533 (2007)

Synthetic Biology

J. Kaiser, "Attempt to Patent Artificial Organism Draws a Protest," Science 316, 1557 (2007)

C. Lartigue et al., "Genome Transplantation in Bacteria: Changing One Species to Another," Science 317, 632 (2007)

M. Itaya et al., "Bottom-Up Genome Assembly Using the Bacillus subtilis Genome Vector," Nature Methods, published online 09 December 2007, doi:10.1038/nmeth1143

P. Ball, "Synthetic Biology: Designs for Life," Nature 448, 32 (2007)

H. Bügl et al., "DNA Synthesis and Biological Security," Nature Biotechnology 25, 627 (2007)


M. Thomas et al., "Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing of Mitochondria from Ancient Hair Shafts," Science 317, 1927 (2007)

C. Patis, "Evolution: Neanderthals Help to Tell Our Story," Nature Reviews Genetics 8, 908 (2007)

D. Jackson et al., "Sponge Paleogenomics Reveals an Ancient Role for Carbonic Anhydrase in Skeletogenesis," Science 316, 1893 (2007)

E. Pennisi, "No Sex Please, We're Neandertals,"Science 316, 967 (2007)

E. Culotta, "Ancient DNA Reveals Neandertals With Red Hair, Fair Complexions," Science 318, 546 (2007)

C. Lalueza-Fox et al., "A Melanocortin 1 Receptor Allele Suggests Varying Pigmentation Among Neanderthals," Science 318, 1453 (2007)

J. Krause et al., "The Derived FOXP2 Variant of Modern Humans Was Shared with Neandertals," Current Biology 17, 1908 (2007)

E. Culotta, "Talk Like a Man," ScienceNOW, 18 October 2007


T. Zhao et al., "Electrical Control of Antiferromagnetic Domains in Multiferroic BiFeO3 Films at Room Temperature," Nature Materials 5, 823 (2006)

Multiferroics (Wikipedia)

What Are Multiferroics?
Tutorial Web page at University of South Florida.


P. Turnbaugh et al., "The Human Microbiome Project," Nature 449, 804 (2007)

E. Pennisi "Massive Microbial Sequence Project Proposed," Science 315, 1781 (2007)

J. Bohannon, "Ocean Study Yields a Tidal Wave of Microbial DNA," Science 315, 1486 (2007)

Neural Circuits

G. Miller, "Shining New Light on Neural Circuits," Science 314, 1674 (2006)

J. Livet et al., "Transgenic Strategies for Combinatorial Expression of Fluorescent Proteins in the Nervous System," Nature 450, 56 (2007)

Online Extras on Last Year's Picks

Planets and Exoplanets

Web Focus: Venus Express (Nature)

New Horizons at Jupiter (Science special issue, 12 October 2007)

Mars Reconnaisance Orbiter (Science special issue, 21 September 2007)

"Space Telescope COROT Finds Its First Extrasolar Planet," DLR (German Aerospace Center) portal

Planetary mission Web sites:
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (NASA)
Venus Express (ESA)
New Horizons (NASA)
COROT space telescope (CNES)

Hominid Fossils

Lordkipanidze D. et al., "Postcranial Evidence from Early Homo from Dmanisi, Georgia," Nature 449, 305 (2007).

Suwa G. et al., "A New Species of Great Ape from the Late Miocene Epoch in Ethiopia," Nature 448, 921 (2007).

Spoor F. et al., "Implications of New Early Homo Fossils from Ileret, East of Lake Turkana, Kenya," Nature 448, 688 (2007).

Haile-Selassie Y., Suwa G., and White, T.D., "Late Miocene Teeth from Middle Awash, Ethiopia, and Early Hominid Dental Evolution," Science 303, 1503 (2004).

White T. D., Suwa G., & Asfaw, B., "Australopithecus ramidus, a New Species of Hominid from Aramis, Ethiopia," Nature 371, 306 (1994).

Primate Genomes

"The Macaque Genome" (Science special issue, including additional online multimedia and teaching resources)

Rhesus Macaque Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium, "Evolutionary and Biomedical Insights from the Rhesus Macaque Genome," Science 316, 222 (2007)

R. A. Harris, et al, "Human-Specific Changes of Genome Structure Detected by Genomic Triangulation," Science 316, 235 (2007)

E. Pennisi, "Genomicists Tackle the Primate Tree," Science 316, 218 (2007)

Climate Change Policy

Bali Climate Meeting

Nobel Peace Prize

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Whole-Genome Association Studies

For references and links on WGA studies, please see the Web resources accompanying this year's main Breakthrough article.

Optical Lattices

Optical lattice papers posted on during 2007