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Watch: Richard III Had a Severely Crooked Spine

We now have a complete picture of the extent of Richard III’s scoliosis, New Scientist reports. Using CT scans and multiple images of his skeleton, scientists were able to stitch together 3D models of the former king of England’s spine. Had it not been for his spinal deformity, Richard would have stood more than 1.7 meters tall. Instead, he appeared multiple centimeters shorter, and his right shoulder was higher than his left. The findings, published online today in The Lancet, also indicate that his backbone was twisted into a spiral shape.

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