Kidney disease affects more than 850 million people around the globe, or approximately one in every nine, exceeding those with HIV/AIDS and diabetes. And death rates are rising, with kidney disease expected to be the fifth-greatest cause of death worldwide by 2040. Reliable biomarkers for kidney disease could help to mitigate this rise, providing improved early detection and diagnosis, more dependable prognosis, and better tracking of treatment response. Although progress has been made in the identification and characterization of potential kidney disease biomarkers, there is much still to be done. We present here a series of articles that provide a snapshot of the current state of research into biomarkers for kidney disease, highlighting what the future of diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment might be.