On 18 September, the people of Scotland will vote on whether their nation should separate from the United Kingdom and become independent. With the margin of victory now expected to be razor-thin, the debate among researchers is growing more strident over whether independence will ring in a golden era for Scottish science—or cripple it for years to come. Researchers opposed to independence say a split will harm science, depriving it of funds and talent. "Yes" campaigners counter that the Scottish government has vowed to protect science during the transition and to maintain funding at least at current levels. A strong science record is at stake.