Lambir Hills National Park in western Borneo is one of the most diverse forests in the world, renowned for its 1173 trees species.
The diversity of large animals has declined dramatically over the last 3 decades, including gibbons (photographed elsewhere), flying foxes, and sun bears. Much of Asia, Africa, and Latin America suffers from poaching and overhunting.
Lambir Hills is also home to a diversity of insects.
Hunting has meant that just small animals remain, such as geckos.
The forest contains a great array of fruits, which are transported by wind or various animals. Hunting could eventually change the forest.
Every 5 years, scientists measure every one of the 370,000 trees and saplings in a 52-hectare plot at Lambir Hills. This work is already revealing changes to the plant community.
Loggers have built roads into previously isolated areas, enabling outsiders and migrants to easily hunt.
Borneo's indigenous nomads, the Penan, long made a living by hunting, but their impact was minimal. They would move their small forest camps when game became scarce.
After decades of logging, Lambir Hills is a lonely island in a sea of oil palm plantations. A paved road has eased access by tourists and nearby residents of Miri, attracted by its waterfalls and sparkling pools.

Slideshow: The empty forest

In many parts of the world, hunting is taking a steep toll on wild animals. This week, Science takes an in-depth look at how overhunting has affected one of the most diverse forests in the world. Lambir Hills National Park in western Borneo, depicted in this slideshow, is protected from logging and agriculture, but the diversity of large animals has dropped precipitously over the last 3 decades. Researchers are learning about the knock-on effects that could put the forest itself at risk. A related special issue lays out how humans, in addition to hunting, are inflicting many kinds of harm on animal communities.