Osaka has been at the center of Japan’s pharmaceutical industry since the 17th century when the Doshomachi district was a hub for merchants trading herbal medicines. The area has been an incubator for global companies and the predecessor of Osaka University’s School of Medical Sciences. Former president Yuichi Yamamura envisaged Northern Osaka as an international hub for life sciences. Now, leaders of the city’s academic, industry, and government sectors are implementing ambitious plans to make the Northern Osaka Biomedical Cluster one of the top five bioscience regions worldwide within the next 10 years. In this booklet, we explore the science within and strategies behind the developing region.