As we pursue bolder initiatives in space, and as China moves towards launching a permanently manned space station, gaining a clearer understanding of the impact of long-term space travel becomes essential to maintain the well-being of astronauts. Serious consideration has been given to human travel beyond low Earth orbit—where the International Space Station resides—and beyond the moon, possibly to Mars or the moons of Jupiter. Examples of groundbreaking space research currently underway in China are collected in this booklet, providing the reader with a taste of what future space exploration might look like. As Chinese scientists learn about the effects on the body and mind, they are applying their knowledge to modify equipment, improve astronaut training, and fine-tune the selection process for astronauts. Other scientists and engineers around the world will benefit, and can apply the new information to space programs in their own countries.