Malnutrition is a complex topic that affects different communities and different populations in a variety of ways. Given its many faces, adequate data to address this serious condition is essential if solutions are to be found. Defining exactly what malnutrition is (or isn't) has also been a challenge. However, there is agreement that malnutrition is an issue of critical importance around the globe. This publication brings together important research articles previously published in Science with original articles, all from top researchers and thought leaders in the field. It is intended to be a call to action for the scientific, academic, governmental, and medical communities to assess and address the economic and clinical burden that malnutrition (in all of its forms) exerts on the global economy and to find a means to provide both short- and long-term solutions for those suffering from malnutrition and its consequences.